Are you curious to know how to connect ps4 to the laptop screen? This detailed guide will positively help you to find the perfect information and answers to your queries and doubts relevantly.
Are you a die heart gaming fan? Are you looking for some tips on How to connect PS4 to the laptop screen? Then don’t worry; I am here to help you out. It is easy and more convenient to attach your laptop with play station 4. Attaching your PS4 with bulky computers will only confine you to a particular place. Now, if you get to know how to connect your PS4 with a laptop screen, then you can easily enjoy playing your game at any time at any place. Isn’t it fantastic? You don’t need to panic. I will guide you in detail about how you can easily connect your ps4 with your laptop screen. You just need to follow the method that suits you and your laptop. Internet is no doubt full of information and ideas. But if you are looking for an article that will guide you properly about the most satisfactory and most excellent method to attach your ps4 with your laptop, then you are in the right place. Under this one article, you will get to know about different techniques. And in the end, you can easily conclude which method suits you the best.
How to connect PS4 to the laptop screen?
Before arriving at any conclusion, check your laptop. Note down every detail about your laptop. Most importantly, visit the settings and look at the features and functions that are present on your laptop. By doing this, you can now easily select the method with the same features present on your laptop. It is always good to do innovative work rather than wasting your efforts over silly sides that only cost your time and leave you fruitless. So beware and check each possible feature of your laptop by clicking on settings.
Are you curious to know how to connect ps4 to the laptop screen? This detailed guide will positively help you to find the perfect information and answers to your queries and doubts relevantly.
LAPTOP FOR PS4
If you want to purchase a laptop for gaming and connect your ps4 with it, consider a few features like battery life, storage, keyboard, speakers, and laptop processor. These features are the top priority for any gamer. Now, as the trend of gaming is going on height. The companies are also making efforts to launch new laptops with desirable features. Before buying any laptop, consider the required features like a USB port and screen size, too, if you are a professional gamer and want to cherish your game entirely. Then do not waste your money on any silly laptop. The competition in the field of electronics is very high nowadays. Every company is trying their best to provide their customers with the best laptops at in low price. But if you want to buy a laptop that you can connect with your play station 4 at a low price, you need to visit different websites and brands. By only doing research through reading and seeing the store, you can easily find the best laptop that you can freely connect with your play station 4 without any hurdle. Do not take any decision in your hustle. Arrive at a certain fruitful conclusion and then go for the required laptop if you do not have it already.
Are you curious to know how to connect ps4 to the laptop screen?
This detailed guide will positively help you to find the perfect information and answers to your queries and doubts relevantly.
It is not an easy task to connect PS4 to the laptop screen; because it’s not only a matter of plug-in the cable into the laptop. You will need a PS4 application to install on your computer, which will provide you access to the PlayStation remote system. The connection of PS4 to a laptop for gaming may require some functions to perform.
We have dedicated this article to one of our regular readers who asked us how to connect PS4 to laptop screens? If you are also browsing the websites for the same query, then go through this article to get vast knowledge.
First of all, you need PS4, Laptop, HDMI (dual functioning), remote controller (double shock), and Micro-USB cable with internet connectivity.
If you prefer to connect PS4 to laptop screen than a big LED TV then you must follow some requirements:
Keep in mind; it is not possible to connect the High Definition Multimedia Interface port directly on the laptop for proper functioning as it is unidirectional. This HDMI port only displays the content of the computer to the external monitor, whereas you would need the video input and HDMI input on the laptop.
So you could build up a link with your PlayStation to the laptop screen. Let’s move forward to the main topic, stay with us, and follow these steps:
How to connect PS4 to the laptop screen?
The most important thing required to connect the PS4 to the laptop screen is this female DVI-D male video adapter with a DVI cable. This cable enables your laptop screen to display the video from PS4 but without Audio. You can solve this Audio issue; there are some great PS4 Speakers with Dynamic Sound listed on Amazon for you.
Now you would need to adjust settings to the external sound system for PlayStation. Make sure you have enabled output sound settings to use speakers. Unless if you have a laptop with 2 HDMI ports input or output, because most of them have a single HDMI output port.
- Bi-directional design: It is possible to connect source devices with HDMI port to output devices with DVI port. Or connect DVI-enabled devices to HDMI-enabled devices.
- Compatibility: Support devices with HDMI port such as Laptop, Desktop, PC, PS3, PS4, TV Box, Blu-ray, Xbox 360, Xbox One, Roku, Apple TV, Play Station 3/4, Wii U; Support devices with DVI port such as Display, Monitor, Projector etc.
- 1080P Resolutions: Supports resolutions at 800x600, 1024x768, 1280x1024, 1600x1200, 1920x1200, and 1080p for high resolution LCD and LED monitors
- Doubled Shielding: 24K Gold-plated full metal connectors (corrosion-resistant) and oxygen free copper lines ensure a maximum signal quality and stable signal transmission between devices.
- What You Get:0.5 Feet HDMI to DVI cable x2, CableCreation 24-month product replacement warranty and lifetime friendly technical support. Any question, please feel free to contact us for help first
- High-performance USB-powered (5V) computer speakers (4-pack) with bottom radiator for “springy” bass sound
- Simple plug-and-play setup (no drivers needed); in-line volume control for easily adjusting the volume
- Brushed black metal finish and blue LED accent lights for sleek, modern style; padded base for scratch-free placement and stability
- Frequency range of 80 Hz - 20 KHz; 2.4 watts of total RMS power (1.2 watts per speaker)
- Measures 3.9 by 2.6 by 2.8 inches each (LxWxH); weighs approximately 1.4 pounds; backed by an Amazon Basics 1-year limited warranty
- ATTENTION: Bundle contains 1 physical game (The Last of Us) and 2 game code vouchers (God of War & Horizon Zero Dawn). Although game codes are printed with a 3/31/2020 expiration date, Sony has extended the expiration date until 3/31/2021. Please redeem codes following the normal process.
- Only on Playstation PS4 bundle includes a Jet black 1TB PS4, matching Dualshock4 wireless controller, God of war, the last of US remastered, and Horizon zero dawn: complete edition games.
- It is a new beginning for Kratos. With his son Atreus, he must face the brutal Norse wilds and venture on a dangerous, personal journey.
- Winner of over 200 game of the Year awards, the last of US has been rebuilt for the PlayStation4 system. Now featuring higher resolution character models, improved shadows and lighting, in addition to several other gameplay improvements.
- Experience the full horizon zero dawn adventure. Explore a version of Earth inhabited by mysterious machines in a new open-world action/R
We have focused on the USB ports much than the other available options which are being neglected. Generally, we use USB ports, and it has become a trend for different laptops. We usually use HDMI (audio/video standard interface) for transferring uncompressed data for all kinds of electronic devices.
HDMI is superseded with these types of connectors like Video Graphic Array and Digital Visual Interface with their existence of decoders, DVD players, HDTV, or gaming consoles.
When we install the Operating System, these ports are activated along with the installation process of windows. The purpose of the port is to transfer data audio and video output to external devices.
For better performance and handling the complexities during playing games, this is the best option with good quality sound and bright pictures while connecting devices to the laptop.
You need to plug the HDMI cable into the back of the console PS4 and the other end of the cable into the laptop port. Now turn on the console, and you will see the output display coming from the console on the laptop screen.
How to connect PS4 to the salvaged laptop?
Do remember the thing that it is impossible to connect with the adapter directly to the laptop’s LCD. There could be a feasible option to use an inverter with the conventional LCD, backlight, power supply, and this HDMI to LVDS converter (interfaces for LCD panels).
While connecting to a non-standard connector, you have to find out which interface your panel has and have a pinout for it.
- Compatible work with DIY Arcade1UP modification with Raspberry PI, fit for arcade1up machine which screen type is M170ETN01 1 , M170ETN01.3 ,M190ETN01.0, G190ETN01.0,,and so on .
- Compatible Work With: 17inch 19inch 1280x1024 1280x1024 6Pin LED Backlight 30Pin LVDS LCD Screen , Board type name :M.NT68676 ,Board Size:125mm x 58mm x 17mm
- Video Input: HDMI DVI VGA, Audio Input: HDMI ,Audio Output: Speaker Connector ,Can work with : VSDISPLAY Speaker 8ohm 2W 70mmx33mmx15mm 4Pin Cable for LCD Controller Board M.NT68676
- Board Power Adapter Recommond sepc.: 12Vdc more than 2A, 5.5mmx2.1mm Connector (Help to notice there is no power adapter in the packing list)
- Screw And Nut For GND Connection, add to the package. Packing list :1× HDMI VGA DVI LCD Controller Board M.NT68676,1× Inverter Board, 1× LVDS Signal Cable, 1× Keyboard With Cable. 1xScrew And
Connecting laptop screen with PS4
To make an appropriate connection of your PS4 to the laptop, you need USB based HDMI to capture the video. You can use these interfaces for U-streaming, LiveStreaming, and Twitch.
You can find out the low range cost devices around $50-$70, and the best quality devices run $150-$200 but could be leggy unless you have a powerful machine.
Connecting your ps4 to a laptop screen is by using a video capture card through HDMI
If we talk about one of the best and reliable methods for connecting your ps4 to a laptop screen, use a video capture card through HDMI. The main feature of a video capture card is that it will ease your game process. The process of gaming becomes fluent and continuous by using a video capture card. Video capture card makes the process of PS4 on laptop very easy as compared to other methods.
Video capture card:
The process of running a PS4 to laptop screen by using a Video capture card requires the following steps. Here I am going to enlist every step for you. Make sure to follow each step. Don’t skip any step otherwise; it will not work for you. By omitting any of the following steps, you will decrease the efficiency of the process. So be conscious while setting up your laptop for PS4.
Before starting your process, make sure your laptop has the following features with the required accessories. Otherwise, look for alternatives, and don’t waste your time on the process that requires these items.
- A laptop
- An internet connection
- File sharing enabled
- Dual function HDMI cable
- PS4 Gaming Console
- A video capture card
After gathering these items, now you can follow the process that is listed below. Keep your attention on your work and do proper research before starting this process.
- The first step to set up your PS4 on the laptop screen involves enabling file sharing. Then go to the menu on your PS4
- And then open settings.
- Now click on Network settings.
- You will see a setting option related to an internet connection.
- Now look for your internet connection from the vast series of internet.
- Finally, connect your PS4 to the internet connection.
Sometimes users came with an issue that they don’t have a wireless internet connection. So don’t panic in that situation. You can use Ethernet cables for that purpose. By using ethernet cables, you can enjoy streaming between your laptop and PS4 as they both are connected to the same router.
Now you need to install the video capture card to your desired laptop having moderate features. You can install a video capture card through the USB port. A video capture card usually serves the S-video connection function. The best thing about the video capture card is that it comes with unique software. For proper and efficient working of video capture cards, you need to install the software. If you ask for my recommendation, I will recommend using a premium quality video capture card for the finest results. Such video capture cards are no doubt expensive but will satisfy you with amazing products.
S VIDEO CONNECTION CABLES:
After all these processes, now the best part comes. Finally, you need to connect the laptop and PS4 with a video capture card. Typically, people use an S- video connection cable to connect their video capture card with laptops. So if you don’t have an S video connection cable, then buy one for a proper connection. In the meantime, connect PS4 to HDMI- Out connector. After that, connect the video capture card with HDMI- In connector.
Once you have followed the entire previously listed step, you can check all the connections. After that, switch on your play station 4. Now click on the installation software. The software operates automatically and searches for any ps4 linked with your laptop. If all your connections were placed right, then your laptop screen will display your game.
If you want the best and most satisfactory results of a game with excellent pixel quality, then I have a tip for you. Open the application in full-screen mode to experience your game in high-quality resolution with zero distortion. Process the installation software after inspecting the above-listed process. It is the quick and most used method to display your game on the laptop. You can enjoy streaming your games on a laptop by using this method. It is the most reliable and easy method. If you follow all these steps accurately, then I will assure you can easily connect your ps4 will the laptop without any further difficulty.
It is considered a simple step that a new gamer or a person with no gaming background can easily understand and can work on it efficiently. Suppose you are a good gamer and want to invest in your gaming to have a memorable gaming experience. Then go for this method and have access to a good quality video capture card. No doubt, as mentioned above, a good quality video card is quite expensive but worth it. If good quality and exciting gaming experience with the maximum resolution is your utmost priority, then go with this method without having a second thought in your mind.
But if you don’t want to invest much in gaming and want to enjoy your PS4 on less budget, then don’t worry. I will also help you guys. Below I will share the methods that are cost-friendly and are affordable by everyone easily. I know in student life, not everyone can afford an expensive gaming setup. It is not harmful to keep yourself in your pocket. Some methods are cheap and easy to operate.
BUILT-IN RECORDING FUNCTION:
The ps4 can capture the display as pS4 has a built-in recording function in laptop storage by saving gameplay. With this feature, you can record or catch any game that you are playing on play station 4.
- On the controller, by pressing the share button, you can easily make an entry to the share page.
- Click on the share setting.
- After that, click on the advanced settings. There you will get the broadcast option.
- Look for the microphone audio option. Select the one that says: include microphone audio in the broadcast.
This is considered the primary step if you want to include voice as well. Otherwise, the primary purpose of the built-in recording function is to record the video only. Once you are ok with all these settings, you can play any game, and the system will automatically record all of that for you.
It is incredibly beneficial to play ps4 on the laptop. With HDMI, it is cheaper and reliable. You don’t need to spend tons of money to capture your gaming experience. It is convenient and easy to set up, and most importantly, you can stream your game without any delay and extensive procedures.
You can directly connect the PS4 to the HDMI output port of the laptop and get signals. You may find other options as well, like using a video capture card along with HDMI input to display a video on the screen. Otherwise, the only HDMI cord won’t work directly for the display on the laptop screen.
You may not get the risk of remote connectivity without worrying about the expensive hardware and LED screens and their connection to the expensive laptops. So you can find the customizable software usually comes along with PS4 and can easily connect a device to the laptop.
The sole reason for connecting PS4 to laptop screen is the natural and customized placement of screen than to restrict yourself sitting in one place. The common uses of the laptop are MS office, producing music, watching movies, and minimal calculations. So that people don’t need an expensive or pricey laptop.
- Input: PS5, PS4, Xbox Series X/S, Xbox One, Nintendo Switch (unencrypted HDMI)
- Output: HDMI (lag-free pass-through) up to 1080p60
- Supported resolutions: 1080p60, 1080p30, 1080i, 720p60, 720p30, 576p, 576i, 480p
- Dimensions: 112 x 75 x 19 mm / 4.4 x 3 x 0.75 in.
- Weight: 106 g / 3.7
Remote play connection
It is recommended to install a remote play application to handle such problems with low cost and high rate efficiency. You can find out the Remote Play App by Sony, which allows you to connect your PS4 to the laptop, but you need a speedy internet connection of 15mb/s to use the Remote Play App on your machine.
Outline of The Procedure
Download the installer to your laptop, double-click the .exe file, and then follow the instruction to start the installation process. During this process, it may require to know the language and agree to the terms of service.
After all, it appears as a blue icon with an image that seems like a dual shock controller.
Now connect PS4’s Dualshock controller to your laptop by putting one end of the cable to the controller and the other to the laptop’s USB port.
Go for options by clicking the button on the controller and sign in to your PlayStation Network account by giving the email and password.
If you don’t have one, then create a new account and enter your PS4 passcode. Set it up on the PlayStation account; you will need to enter it using the controller. When you log in, you will be able to play your PlayStation4 remotely on your laptop using the PS4 Remote Play App.
Are you craving freedom while playing your favorite game? Then I have an excellent solution for you. By connecting your play station 4 via remote play to your laptop screen, you can cherish your freedom while playing your games. Through remote play, you have access to enjoy your game from any part of your house or room without the mess of numerous tangled wires. Using this method, you can save yourself from the worry of resulting clutter, and by using remote play, you don’t have to join numerous wires to play a video game.
Connecting your play station 4 with your laptop via remote play requires some items. I am going to enlist them below so you can easily understand the process and can get them without struggling:
- You need a valid account on PS 4 network.
- It would be best if you had a good internet connection with maximum speed.
- USB cable, or if you don’t want to use that so you can use dual shock 4 USB wireless adaptors
- And it would help if you had a laptop with the required features.
- Lastly, it would help if you had a PS4 gaming console.
When you gather or buy these required items so you can move towards the process that includes connecting your laptop with PS4 via remote play.
By following the steps that I will discuss below, you can easily enable your remote PS4 on your laptop. Arrange a laptop with a good screen size and maximum resolution. A laptop that doesn’t have a good screen size will hinder your gaming experience. By getting a laptop that has a wide spacious screen size will maximize your gaming thrill. Preferably, get a laptop that has an LED screen display for the most pleasing results. To set up the remote play, you have to tweak some possible settings only if you have a good screen size laptop.
Now let us move towards the next step that deals with downloading the latest and up to the dated version of the Sony remote play that suits your laptop.
- For MAC and windows, there are different websites for downloading remote play. It is compulsory to download the latest version of the Sony remote play. You cannot skip that; otherwise, you won’t be able to connect your PS4 to your laptop screen via remote play.
- You can easily install this app by running the installer once your downloading of the application is completed. So don’t skip any step. Just focus on every stage and follow the instructions patiently for awful results.
- If you want to connect multiple play station 4, you need to follow another step too. If you just want to join one PS4, you can instantly skip this step and instantly move towards the next step.
- Now you are making arrangements to prepare your play station 4 for connections. For that purpose, you have to consider one of your play stations 4 as a primary console. Turn on your PS4 and move towards the settings. Then click ok the play station network settings. Look for the account management option. After clicking on the account management option, you will get further options. Click on the option that says Activate as primary PS4.
- Before doing this step, make sure your play station 4 has the latest software updated. From settings, you can get the latest update. Go to the settings. Click on the system software update. From there, you can easily find an option that says download the latest update manually.
- Now you are ready to activate the play station 4 remote play option by visiting the settings in play station 4. By clicking on the main settings section, you will get to remove play connection settings. Click on the remove play connection and check whether the remote play is turned off or not. After disabling the remote play, you are good to carry on the next steps.
- Don’t forget to ensure whether your play station is in rest mode or switched in because now you can’t play your game by using the network.
- Once again, repeat the process go to the settings, and then select the power settings. Press on the rest mode and turn it on if it is not on. By default, the test mode is on, but it is better to recheck to make sure about every step.
- The option to turn on the network in your PS4 is also turned on by default if it is not enabled, so you can allow that by visiting power settings.
That’s all you have to do with the remote play app that is present on your PS4.
Now you have to make arrangements for your laptop. On the left side, you will see the option of settings. Firstly, I recommend you adjust your resolution frame. 720p is considered a default resolution. If you want to increase your resolution, then for that purpose, you need a high power resolution to improve your laptop resolution up to 1080p.
Choose your frame rate nicely. Choosing a higher frame rate will burden up your network while neglecting the frame rate and selecting a low frame rate will decrease the quality of the game.
Dual shock 4 controller
Now move on to attach a Dual shock 4 controller to your laptop. You can connect it by using two ways.
Wireless control has more benefits as compared to a USB adaptor. It is easy to operate and follow.
- Until the light bar starts sparkling in the controller, try to press and hold the play station and share the controller’s present button.
- Just plug in the USB cable in the USB port space that is primarily present on all laptops. By plugging, the USB controller will be paired with the laptop within 3.4 seconds.
Searching for a Ps4 network is not a difficult or hectic task. By following these few steps, you can easily see your PS4 network:
- Click the start button on the remote play app.
- After that, click on will find an option of the PS4 network.
- Remote play won’t take too long to search for a network. Whatever network the remote play detects firstly will display on your laptop’s screen. It will act as a console that helps in streaming your gameplay on the laptop.
The best advantage of using this method is that you can chat and type text while playing your game by using a keyboard and mouse.
It is always good to turn off your devices after playing. There are numerous ways through which you can turn off your play station 4. Out of them, I am going to discuss the simple ones that will work out for you:
- By pressing the play station button on the controller, click on power settings, and select the option that says turn off ps4.
- The second way to turn off your ps4 is through rest mode. By enabling rest mode, your pS4 will sleep.
No doubt, it is a tricky method and requires total attention. But it has numerous benefits and is new as compared to HDMI. Gaming through this method is full of fun and more excitement. While doing connections and everything, you need to be conscious. Otherwise, if you skip a step or make any mistake, so you have to repeat and recheck the whole process; it is an extensive method and requires your time and attention. Investment is also significant in this method as compared to the other methods.
Think deeply before you opt for any of these methods. Follow one method at a time. Do not try to intermingle two methods into one. It will only waste your time and energy.
If you are looking for a professional environment to enjoy your gaming, I will recommend you go with the OBS method to connect your ps4 with a laptop. The open broadcast system is known for its best features.
It is the most up-to-date and straightforward method. You just need to follow the enlisted few instructions, and you are good to go with gaming.
- Firstly, install remote play software.
- Try to make a connection between ps4 and laptop.
- In the meantime, open the OBS software.
- Search for Add menu option
- Click on the menu and add a new menu.
- On the newly created menu, select the window capture option.
- You will see that your game will start playing on your laptop.
- Simply press ok and enjoy your game on your laptop.
Playing games using OBS is quicker, faster, and cheaper as compared to other methods listed above. No doubt, the methods are also good and quite reliable. But if you want to go for an advanced approach with minimum chances of mistakes, then I will suggest you follow this method. The chances of errors are less, and it does not require extended arrangements and items. For the other 2 methods, you have to buy certain items, and then you will be able to enjoy your gaming. If we compare the results and everything, then I can proudly say that the connection using OBS will also provide you with the most acceptable resolution, minimum distortion, and good Audio.
With the advancement in gaming, you can now connect your laptop with your ps4 by getting a subscription to play station now. Play station now resembles the console, but it is not a console. By having a play station subscription now, you can enjoy your ps4 games without paying for the console.
Play station now is not free, but if you buy the subscription of play station now, you will have access to a wide variety of games that you can easily enjoy on your laptop without wasting your money on ps4.
In case you wonder what you will do if you do not like the features and games of play station now so don’t worry, you can enjoy 7 days of the free trial, and then if you want to continue playing so, you can start your gaming by purchasing a subscription.
If you are thinking about the gadget you need to operate play station now so doesn’t worry. You don’t need to buy an expensive laptop for play station now; an average laptop with moderate features is enough for you to enjoy your games via play station now on your laptop.
A laptop having the following features is required for the proper working of play station now:
- Intel core i3
- Must have at least 2 GB of memory
- Windows 7
- And have a minimum of 300 MB of storage.
PROCESS FOR DOWNLOADING
Now let us move towards the process whom you can download play station now on your laptop. You just need to follow the steps that I am going to discuss below:
- Visit Sony’s official website. Click on the play station now downloader page option.
- After downloading, click next.
- Then you need to agree to the term and conditions.
- Check the folder on your laptop where you want to place your play station now.
- After that, click the next option.
- You can see the box to create a shortcut that you can easily place on your desktop. After that, move forward by clicking next.
- Finally, click on the install button.
- A box may appear that says that it will make specific changes to your laptop. Tap allows.
- After that, again click install. The play station will start to install, but it may take some time to install.
- When you see that installation is complete, press on the finish, your play station is now automatically launched on your laptop.
WORKING ON PLAYSTATION NOW
Now let me guide you about whom it works. First of all, select the region, date of birth, and language. Click on submit button.
- Click on the sign-in option.
- Click on the free trial option. It will take you to the browser.
- Select the 1 month or 12 months/ year subscription.
- Enter your credit card details in your Sony account. The same account will be used for your play station now.
- After that, again click on the 7 days trial option.
- After registering your payment details, you can enjoy playing your games.
CANCELATION OF SUBSCRIPTION
You can cancel the subscription but kindly do that before your trial end. If you want to cancel your subscription, then follow the steps listed below:
- Go to song settings
- Click on account management.
- Press on account information
- Select play station subscription
- Lastly, select play station now subscription.
- Press on turn off the auto-renew option
You can easily cancel the subscription by following these few easy steps. The play station now is the most frequently used method by gamers as it is easy to operate. No doubt, it is costly as compared to other methods, but you can enjoy the wide variety of games through play station now. You can quickly grab your laptop, and within no time, you can enjoy your game.
Don’t try to mix any two procedures. Every procedure has its features and points. Just make sure to follow every step wisely. Do proper research before arriving at any conclusion. If you would ask me about my recommendation so I will suggest you go for the latest and up to dated methods because these methods are more reliable and will provide you with the finest quality with a wide variety. Through play station now, you can even have access to the games of Ps2 and ps3. Isn’t it amazing? If you need to get more information and want to know each method’s pros and cons, you can effortlessly search that on Google. You can do your proper research so that you won’t regret your decision later. Invest your money wisely and prefer the method that seems cost-friendly to you.
These are some important facts and guides to know how to connect ps4 to a laptop screen. I can assure you it will help you to understand all the essential points from basic to advance about this query. You should pay attention to every little detail about the PS4 connection to a laptop to know well.